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IN THIS ISSUE:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE

California Youth Continue Steep Declines in Arrests

Using Ambulance Data to Inform Violence Prevention


EDUCATION

Tackling Transfer: A Guide to Convening Community Colleges and Universities to Improve Transfer Student Outcomes

Evaluation of the Teacher Incentive Fund: Final Report on Implementation and Impacts of Pay-for-Performance Across Four Years


GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

State and Local Policy: A Critical Concern for Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs)

Resilience and Efficiency in Transportation Networks


HEALTH AND
HUMAN SERVICES

Mortality in the United States, 2016

Understanding the Scope of Child Sexual Abuse: Challenges and Opportunities



December 22, 2017

Criminal_Justice
CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Arrests of California youth ages 10-17 declined sharply last year. Since 2007, California’s youth arrest rate has dropped to record-setting lows each year. In 2016, there were 9,180 fewer arrests of youth ages 10-17 than the previous year, a 13% decline. Youth arrests for violent crimes have fallen to less than half the rate in 1990. The 2016 arrest rate of youth for violent crimes (including murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and kidnapping) fell to 56% below the 1990 rate and 68% below 1975’s rate.

Source: Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice

Ambulance data are a source of intelligence for injury surveillance that may be effective in supporting violence-reduction initiatives. Once data sharing partnership has been established, the data then need to be used to identify areas for intervention and support the police in reducing violence. This requires not only good analysis of the data but also an understanding among relevant partners about how the data can be used and interpreted. Many of the suggested violence reduction interventions related to these uses have not been empirically tested to know if they are effective. Therefore, uses of ambulance data should be approached as potentially good practice rather than as proven best practice.

Source: RAND Corporation

Education
EDUCATION

Research shows that very few community college students, many of whom seek a bachelor’s degree, successfully transfer to and graduate from a four-year institution. This implementation guide is designed to help state entities organize workshops within which teams from two- and four-year institutions work together to improve transfer and graduation outcomes for their students. Through data analysis and self-reflection of institutional practices, these workshops help institutions develop action plans (individually and among partners) to improve transfer student success. This guide is accompanied by a number of additional resources, including How to Measure Community College Effectiveness in Serving Transfer Students. The guide was created as part of the larger Tackling Transfer project and serves as a complement to the 2016 Transfer Playbook.

Source: Community College Research Center

In 2006, Congress established the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF), which provides grants to support performance-based compensation systems for teachers and principals in high-need schools. This evaluation examines the effectiveness of the program in ten of the 130 districts that received grants awarded in 2010. Within the ten evaluation districts, pay-for-performance led to slightly higher student achievement in reading and math by the second year of implementation. Most 2010 TIF districts implemented each individual component of the comprehensive, performance-based compensation system required under their grant, and about half implemented all four components for teachers. Many 2010 TIF districts reported that sustainability of their program was a major challenge, and slightly fewer than half planned to offer pay-for-performance bonuses after their grant ended.

Source: Mathematica Policy Research

Government Operations
GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) are financial institutions with a mission of serving low- and moderate-income people and communities. CDFIs are increasingly involved in state and local policy and programs in addition to more traditional federal policy work. This brief discusses the types of state and local policy issues that CDFIs interact with and how well-designed policies can further CDFI impacts. The brief introduces the types of state and local policy that are important for CDFIs, provides some concrete examples, and concludes with a discussion of strategies and techniques for successful engagement.

Source: Urban Institute

Urban transportation systems are vulnerable to congestion, accidents, weather, special events, and other costly delays. Whereas typical policy responses prioritize reduction of delays under normal conditions to improve the efficiency of urban road systems, analytic support for investments that improve resilience (defined as system recovery from additional disruptions) is still scarce. The authors estimated efficiency as the average annual delay per peak-period auto commuter. Resilience was estimated as the change in efficiency resulting from roadway disruptions and was found to vary between cities, with increased delays due to a 5% random loss of road linkages ranging from 9.5% in Los Angeles to 56.0% in San Francisco. The results demonstrate that many urban road systems that operate inefficiently under normal conditions are nevertheless resilient to disruption, whereas some more efficient cities are more fragile. The implication is that resilience, not just efficiency, should be considered explicitly in roadway project selection and justify investment opportunities related to disaster and other disruptions.

Source: Science Advances

Health and Human Services
HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

Life expectancy for the U.S. population in 2016 was 78.6 years, a decrease of 0.1 year from 2015. The age-adjusted death rate decreased by 0.6% from 733.1 deaths per 100,000 standard population in 2015 to 728.8 in 2016. Age-specific death rates between 2015 and 2016 increased for younger age groups and decreased for older age groups. The 10 leading causes of death in 2016 remained the same as in 2015, although unintentional injuries became the third leading cause, while chronic lower respiratory diseases became the fourth. The infant mortality rate of 587.0 infant deaths per 100,000 live births in 2016 was not significantly different from the 2015 rate. The 10 leading causes of infant death in 2016 remained the same as in 2015.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The enormous individual, familial, and societal burden of child sexual abuse has underscored the need to address the problem from a public health framework. Much work remains, however, at the first step of this framework - defining and understanding the scope of the problem, or establishing incidence and prevalence estimates. This paper provides an overview of the ways researchers have defined and estimated the scope of child sexual abuse, focusing on agency tabulations and large-scale surveys conducted over the last several decades. More precise estimates of the number of children affected by child sexual abuse would improve the ability of the public health, child welfare, pediatrics, and other communities to prevent and respond to the problem. The authors recommend using a comprehensive surveillance system to assess and track the scope of child sexual abuse. This system should be grounded by common definitional elements and draw from multiple indicators and sources to estimate the prevalence of a range of sexually abusive experiences.

Source: RTI International


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