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IN THIS ISSUE:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Translating the Science of Adolescent Development to Sustainable Best Practice

Most California Jurisdictions Show Declines in Property Crime During Justice Reform Era, 2010-2016

Sexual Victimization of Men with Disabilities and Deaf Men


EDUCATION

Effectiveness of a School-Based Mindfulness Program for Transdiagnostic Prevention in Young Adolescents

The Value of Out-of-School Time Programs


GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

Common Pay Patterns and Extra Earnings: 2013

Housing Profile of Areas Affected by Hurricane Irma


HEALTH AND
HUMAN SERVICES

Opioid Use Disorders: HHS Needs Measures to Assess the Effectiveness of Efforts to Expand Access to Medication-Assisted Treatment

Trends in Depression Prevalence in the USA From 2005 to 2015: Widening Disparities in Vulnerable Groups

Evidence on the Long-Term Effects of Home Visiting Programs



November 3, 2017

Criminal_Justice
CRIMINAL JUSTICE

This brief is designed to help state and local jurisdictions incorporate research on adolescent development into their efforts to maximize improved and sustainable youth outcomes and system performance. Upon closer examination of the origins of the research over the past decade, there is evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during the period of adolescence that has resulted in a strong consensus among neuroscientists about the nature of these changes. Simply stated, the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This fact leaves adolescents less capable of self-regulation than adults. Additionally, both the seriousness and likelihood of offending are also strongly affected by influences in youths’ environment - peers, parents, schools, and communities.

Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice

California’s property crime totals fell 3% between 2010 and 2016, a period marked by major justice system reform, including a prison realignment and two propositions approved by voters. But substantial variation in crime at the local level, which suggests that recent crime patterns may result from local policies rather than state policy reform. Some law enforcement officials have blamed justice reforms for property crime increases. For every major crime except vehicle theft, more California jurisdictions reported decreases than increases in their crime rates from 2010 to 2016. For example, just 141 jurisdictions reported increased rates of burglary, while 367 jurisdictions showed decreases. Across California, crime trends have been highly localized. Of the 511 cities and local areas studied, 42% showed rising rates of property crime from 2010 to 2016, with an average increase of 12.8%, and 58% showed decreases, with an average decline of 18.1%.

Source: Center for Juvenile and Criminal Justice

Men with disabilities experience victimization, including sexual violence, at rates higher than their counterparts without disabilities. This brief gives an overview of the latest research on the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence in the lives of men with disabilities and deaf men, identifies gaps in the field’s knowledge on the subject, and documents the unique barriers both groups face in accessing services. It concludes by looking ahead to how additional research, public policy changes, and educational efforts can contribute to ending the victimization of men with disabilities and deaf men.

Source: Vera Institute of Justice

Education
EDUCATION

Anxiety, depression, and eating disorders show peak emergence during adolescence and share common risk factors. School-based prevention programs provide a unique opportunity to access a broad spectrum of the population during a key developmental window, but to date, no program targets all three conditions concurrently. Mindfulness has shown promising early results across each of these psychopathologies in a small number of controlled trials in schools, and therefore this study investigated its use in a randomized controlled design targeting anxiety, depression, and eating disorder risk factors together for the first time. Students from a broad band of socioeconomic demographics received an eight lesson, once weekly mindfulness in schools curriculum or normal lessons. Anxiety, depression, weight/shape concerns, and wellbeing were the primary outcome factors. No significant improvements were found on any outcome at post-intervention or 3-month follow-up. Factors that may be important to address for effective dissemination of mindfulness-based interventions in schools are discussed.

Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy

Youth (grades kindergarten through 12) across the United States participate in out-of-school time (OST) programs in group settings after school and during the summer. Out-of-school time programs can be multipurpose (e.g., after-school clubs, YMCA, Boys and Girls Club), academically oriented, or related to specialty interests (e.g., sports clubs, theater programs). The authors found that OST programs provide measurable benefits to youth and families on outcomes directly related to program content. Academic OST programs can demonstrably improve academic outcomes and do not necessarily reduce program attendance at the elementary level. Program quality and intentionality influence outcomes, and youth need to attend regularly to measurably benefit from programming.

Source: RAND Corporation

Government Operations
GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

Earnings are generally associated with a steady paycheck. However, earnings can include different types of payments. For instance, some people may receive monthly payments based on an annual salary only, while others may receive weekly payments based on an hourly wage per number of hours worked. This brief examines the different types of pay received during calendar year 2013, including wage and salary and extra earnings (which collectively refer to commission, tips, overtime, and bonus payments). This brief also provides information on earnings by sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

This fact sheet provides data on the housing market in the area affected by Hurricane Irma, including Miami, Tampa, and Jacksonville. Data include the number of houses and mortgages, the percentage of single-family homes, the percentage of Federal Housing Administration and Veterans Benefits Administration-insured loans, and the homeownership, delinquency, foreclosure, and negative equity rates. Over 90% of Florida’s housing stock is in counties touched by damage from Hurricane Irma. Though homes in Florida tend to be better covered by flood insurance, the state is unique in its slow recovery from the financial crisis. Florida home prices are still below peak, and the state has a high proportion of borrowers with negative equity. Today, the negative equity share in the region affected by Hurricane Irma stands at 10.2%, which is almost twice the national average (5.4%). On a state level, Florida trails only Nevada in negative equity share.

Source: Urban Institute

Health and Human Services
HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

The misuse of prescription opioid pain relievers and illicit opioids, such as heroin, has contributed to increases in overdose deaths. Over 52,000 people died of drug overdoses in 2015—and 63% of these involved opioids. For those who are addicted to or misuse opioids, medication-assisted treatment (MAT)—behavioral therapy combined with medication (such as buprenorphine)—can help. However, many people who need it don't have access to it. The authors reviewed the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) efforts related to MAT for opioid use disorders. This report describes HHS’s key efforts to expand access to MAT, examines HHS’s evaluation, if any, of its efforts to expand access to MAT, and describes efforts by selected stakeholders (states, private health insurers, and national associations) to expand access to MAT.

Source: U.S. Government Accountability Office

Major depression is associated with significant disability, morbidity, and mortality. The authors estimated trends in the prevalence of major depression in the U.S. population from 2005 to 2015 overall and by demographic subgroups. The prevalence of depression increased significantly in the U.S. from 2005 to 2015. The rate of increase in depression among youth was significantly more rapid relative to older groups. Further research into understanding the macro level, micro level, and individual factors that are contributing to the increase in depression, including factors specific to demographic subgroups, would help to direct public health prevention and intervention efforts.

Source: Psychological Medicine

Children from low-income families are more likely than those from higher-income families to have poor social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes. One approach that has helped parents and their young children is home visiting, which provides information, resources, and support to expectant parents and families with young children. This brief summarizes evidence from existing studies on the impact of early childhood home visiting on children five and older for four national models of home visiting. Evidence-based home visiting has improved outcomes for parents and children across a wide range of child ages, outcome areas, and national models. Evidence-based home visiting appears to be cost-effective in the long term. The largest benefits from evidence-based home visiting come through reduced spending on government programs and increased individual earnings.

Source: MDRC


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GOVERNMENT PROGRAM SUMMARIES (GPS)
Government Program Summaries (GPS) is a free resource for legislators and the public that provides descriptive information on over 200 state government programs. To provide fiscal data, GPS links to Transparency Florida, the Legislature's website that includes continually updated information on the state's operating budget and daily expenditures by state agencies.

POLICYNOTES

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