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IN THIS ISSUE:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Knowing More, but Accomplishing What? Developing Approaches To Measure the Effects of Information-Sharing on Criminal Justice Outcomes

The Intersection of Juvenile Courts and Exclusionary School Discipline

Disrupting School-Justice Pathways for Youth with Behavioral Health Need


EDUCATION

Patterns of Resegregation in Florida’s Schools

The Texas Teacher Evaluation and Support System Rubric: Properties and Association With School Characteristics

The Evidence Base for How We Learn: Supporting Students’ Social, Emotional, and Academic Development


GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

Employment Projections: 2016-26 Summary

The Interaction Between IRAs and 401(K) Plans in Savers' Portfolios

HEALTH AND
HUMAN SERVICES

Mental Health and Suicide in Volusia County

National Mental Health Services Survey: 2016

Prevalence of Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Among Adults, by Physical Activity: United States, 2011–2014

Biosimilar Cost Savings in the United States



October 27, 2017

Criminal_Justice
CRIMINAL JUSTICE

This report should be of interest to criminal justice practitioners, policymakers, civil society organizations, and members of the public interested in information-sharing activities for criminal justice and public safety purposes. The information-sharing tools examined compose the Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARIJ) used by local, state, and federal public safety agencies in San Diego County. The results of this study, despite being correlational, support the value of information-sharing among multiple public safety agencies in several ways. Sharing information through ARIJS systems was associated with greater multi-agency involvement with specific offenders, which is consistent with the goal of reducing the effect of jurisdictional boundaries on agency activities and effectiveness. Data-sharing was associated with increases in the number of crime cases connected to suspects. This is an important outcome, given the role of serial offenders in a significant percentage of crimes. The amount of use of sharing tools, measured across a large user population, correlated with numbers and probabilities of cross-jurisdictional arrests.

Source: RAND Corporation

Historically, school administrators have been responsible for addressing students' misbehavior in school. However, over the past few decades, an increasing number of school-related issues have come before the juvenile court due to school policies and practices. Zero tolerance school discipline policies often include arrest and/or referral to the juvenile court or exclusionary discipline practices, such as in-school and out-of-school suspension and expulsion. When students are removed from classrooms, they lose instruction time and can be held back academically. According to the authors of this report, removal of students can precipitate a chain of events that might lead to students' involvement in the juvenile justice system. Moreover, long-term economic costs to society are an important and often underestimated consequence of school suspensions, expulsions, and arrests.

Source: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges

Throughout the 1990s, the rise of zero-tolerance school discipline policies resulted in the widespread adoption of strict and mandatory responses for a large range of misbehavior in school. An unintended consequence of these policies and practices were youth with behavioral health needs put at an increased risk for exclusionary discipline and school-based arrests. Disabled students and those with behavioral health needs have been disproportionately impacted by this shift in policy and practice. Communities and states have recognized the need to address those with behavioral health needs, and have implemented a School Responder Model (SRM). SRMs are a multidisciplinary approach to responding to youth with behavioral health needs and have been shown to effectively divert those youth away from the juvenile justice system. This technical assistance bulletin provides the steps necessary to implement a SRM and keep kids in school and out of court.

Source: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges

Education
EDUCATION

Student enrollment trends in Florida over the past decades show growing racial isolation for Hispanic and black students on some measures with signs of continuous segregation on others. Currently, 32% of Hispanic students and 35% of black students in the state attend intensely segregated schools (those with 90-100% enrollment of nonwhite students). School segregation in Florida today is strongly related to residential patterns of urbanization and suburbanization in the state, where students of color reside in urban areas. Accordingly, highly segregated schools are concentrated in metropolitan urban areas of the state, including metro Miami, Tampa, Orlando, Jacksonville, and Tallahassee, although the Miami area has the highest concentration of intensely segregated schools. The proportion of low-income students in Florida public schools reaches nearly 60%. The typical Hispanic student and typical black student attend schools with a share of socioeconomically disadvantaged students that is almost 1.5 times higher than the share of low-income students in the school of a typical white or Asian student.

Source: Leroy Collins Institute

The Texas Teacher Evaluation and Support System (T-TESS) rubric demonstrated potential to effectively differentiate teacher performance and served its purpose of yielding meaningful feedback that can support targeted professional development. More than 25% of teachers were rated developing or in need of improvement. Sixty-eight percent of teachers were rated proficient. Five percent of teachers received either an accomplished or a distinguished rating. The authors found that the T-TESS rubric is internally consistent. Relationships between teachers’ overall ratings on the T-TESS rubric and some school characteristics are statistically significant. However, the combination of school characteristics included in the analysis explains, at most, 8% of the variation in overall ratings for teachers in high schools and less of the variation for teachers in elementary and middle schools.

Source: Southwest Regional Educational Laboratory at SEDL

This brief draws from brain science, medicine, economics, psychology, and education research to describe why it is essential to address the social, emotional, and cognitive dimensions of learning; how these dimensions together shape students’ academic and life outcomes; and how these competencies can be taught throughout childhood, adolescence, and beyond. The authors present evidence that the nation should move beyond the debate as to whether schools should attend to students’ social and emotional development, to how schools can integrate social, emotional, and academic development into their daily work. The brief presents a set of consensus statements that affirm the interconnectedness of social, emotional, and academic development as central to the learning process.

Source: Aspen Institute

Government Operations
GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

Employment is projected to increase by 11.5 million over the 2016-26 decade, an increase from 156.1 million to 167.6 million. This growth (0.7% annually) is faster than the 0.5% rate of growth during the 2006–16 decade, a period heavily affected by the 2007–09 recession. Health care industries and their associated occupations are expected to account for a large share of new jobs projected through 2026, as the aging population continues to drive demand for health care services. The labor force will continue to grow slowly and to become older and more diverse. The aging population is projected to result in a decline in the overall labor force participation rate over the 2016 to 2026 decade.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

This brief discusses how savers’ contributions are linked across different types of tax-preferred accounts. Previous research has concluded that workers who become eligible for a 401(k) plan also see stronger growth in individual retirement account (IRA) balances. However, the mechanism for this increase – contributions, asset growth, rollovers, etc. – is not well understood. Using a sample of tax returns from 1999-2014, and two different control groups that have stronger and weaker tastes for saving, respectively, than the treatment group, the authors found virtually no link between new 401(k) contributions and new IRA contributions. Households who start contributing to 401(k) plans do not have higher propensities to start contributing to IRAs, raise IRA contributions, own IRAs, or have higher IRA balances.

Source: Urban Institute

Health and Human Services
HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

Volusia County’s 2016 suicide rate (18.3) was nearly twice as high as the Healthy People 2020 national target of 10.2 deaths per 100,000 persons. The Volusia County suicide rate trended downward from 2012 to 2016, but remained consistently higher than the rate for Florida. In 2014, 30% of high school students in Volusia County felt so sad or hopeless for two weeks or more within the previous 12 months that they stopped doing some usual activities; 15% had purposefully hurt themselves without wanting to die.

Source: Florida Department of Health in Volusia County

This report presents findings from the 2016 National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) conducted from March 2016 through January 2017. More than a third of mental health treatment facilities (39%) were outpatient. Mental health treatment facilities could offer services in more than one type of service setting (e.g., inpatient, residential, outpatient). Seventy-six percent of all mental health treatment facilities offered less than 24-hour outpatient mental health services. Most mental health treatment facilities (81%) were privately operated, about 63% of were operated by a private non-profit organization, and the other 18% by a private for-profit organization. Over 95% of psychiatric hospitals, general hospitals with a separate psychiatric unit, and Veterans Administration medical centers provided psychotropic medication therapy. Of all clients enrolled in mental health treatment services on April 29, 2016, an estimated 24% had diagnosed, co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders.

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

The prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly higher among adults who did not meet recommended physical activity guidelines (21.0%) than adults who met the guidelines (17.7%). Low HDL cholesterol prevalence differed significantly for both men and women by adherence to physical activity guidelines. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol declined as age increased for both those who did and did not meet the physical activity guidelines. Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults who did not meet the physical activity guidelines had a higher prevalence than those who met the guidelines. Low HDL cholesterol prevalence declined with increasing education level regardless of adherence to physical activity guidelines.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics

The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (BPCIA), enacted as part of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), authorized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to create a new regulatory approval pathway for biosimilars, which are biologic drugs that are very similar to already approved "reference" biologics in terms of potency, safety, and efficacy, but are manufactured by different companies. This report estimates potential future savings from biosimilars in the United States, summarizes the experience to date with the first marketed biosimilar in the United States, and discusses key policy issues surrounding biosimilars. The authors estimate that biosimilars will reduce direct spending on biologic drugs by $54 billion from 2017 to 2026, or about 3%of total estimated biologic spending over the same period, with a range of $24 to $150 billion. The estimate uses recent data and transparent assumptions, but actual savings will hinge on industry and regulatory decisions as well as potential policy changes to strengthen the biosimilar market.

Source: RAND Corporation


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