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Jail Inmates in 2016

Federal Prison: Information on Inmates with Serious Mental Illness and Strategies to Reduce Recidivism


Digest of Education Statistics, 2016

Finish Line: Graduation by Design


Illinois Blockchain and Distributed Leger Task Force Final Report

The Role of State Governments in Economic Development and Research and Development Competitiveness

State Regulation of the Charitable Sector


Finding Statistics and Data Related to Rural Health

Understanding Young-Parent Families

February 23, 2018


County and city jails held 740,700 inmates at midyear 2016, down from a peak of 785,500 inmates at midyear 2008. In 2016, jails reported 10.6 million admissions, continuing a general decline since 2008. The jail incarceration rate declined from a peak of 259 inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents at midyear 2007 to 229 per 100,000 at midyear 2016. At year-end 2016, non-Hispanic blacks (599 per 100,000 black residents) were incarcerated in jail at a rate 3.5 times that of non-Hispanic whites (171 per 100,000 white residents). The total rated capacity of county and city jails reached 915,400 beds at year-end 2016.

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice

This report examines inmates in federal prisons with serious mental illnesses. About two-thirds of inmates with a serious mental illness in the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) were incarcerated for four types of offenses, drug (23%), sex offenses (18%), weapons and explosives (17%), and robbery (8%). Inmates with serious mental illness were incarcerated for sex offenses, robbery, and homicide/aggravated assault at about twice the rate of inmates without serious mental illness, and were incarcerated for drug and immigration offenses at about half or less the rate of inmates without serious mental illness. Criminal justice and mental health experts have developed a framework to reduce recidivism among adults with mental illness. The framework calls for correctional agencies to assess individuals' recidivism risk and substance abuse and mental health needs and target treatment to those with the highest risk of reoffending.

Source: U.S. Government Accountability Office


The 52nd in a series of publications initiated in 1962, the Digest of Education Statistics' purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of education from prekindergarten through graduate school. It contains data on a variety of topics, including the number of schools and colleges, teachers, enrollments, and graduates, in addition to educational attainment, finances, and federal funds for education, libraries, and international comparisons.

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Most community college students enroll in fewer than 15 credits per semester, making it nearly impossible for them to graduate in two years. Many also struggle academically. This infographic describes a project that will attempt to use behavioral science to address these issues and thereby improve graduation rates. This approach will aid in identifying barriers to community college students, investigating their context, help explain why they are occurring, create solutions, and evaluate their effectiveness.

Source: MDRC

Government Operations

While the internet may have revolutionized communication, it has not necessarily transformed business and commerce in terms of trust. Establishing identity and transacting value online still requires verification from a trusted third party (banks, governments, big technology companies). While intermediaries fill a vital role in transacting value, they can add costs by monetizing vast amounts of data privacy and leave over a quarter of the world’s population out of the global economy. The blockchain, a type of database that is replicated over a peer –to-peer network, allows anything of value, money, titles, deeds and identity attributes to be exchanged, stored, and managed securely and privately. Trust is not established exclusively by intermediaries, but through network consensus, cryptography and code. The principal way in which a blockchain is different from other distributed databases is that a blockchain is designed to achieve consistent and reliable agreement over a record of events (often referred to as the “state”) between independent participants who may have different motivations and objectives. In other words, participants in a blockchain network reach consensus about changes to the state of the shared database (i.e., transactions amongst participants) without needing to trust the integrity of any of the network participants or administrators. The authors believe that blockchain technology and its built-in encryption can facilitate highly-secure methods for interacting with government and keeping paperless records, increasing data accuracy and providing better cybersecurity protections for Illinois residents. Though the technology still needs refinement, government has an opportunity to help shape and adopt innovative solutions.

Source: Illinois General Assembly

Federal investments in research and development (R and D) have historically supported the security of the nation, the protection of public health and the environment, the growth of new industries, and the employment of millions of Americans. However, proposed cuts to federal support and policy guidance could encourage more state governments to take on new or larger roles in developing innovation policy priorities. On October 17 and 18, 2017, the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable held a meeting to consider how federal R and D policies affect states, and how state governments’ roles in shaping local and regional innovation ecosystems will affect national R and D competitiveness and economic growth. Speakers also discussed the ways in which economic development efforts in states and regions drive innovation and economic growth. This publication briefly summarizes the presentations and discussions from the meeting.

Source: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

State charity offices play an important role in regulating the nonprofit sector, working both independently and with state and federal law enforcement agencies. A recent survey found that state charity offices vary in structure, authority, and tools used to facilitate and enforce regulatory compliance. In this brief, the authors analyze those data to compare the relationship between state-level enforcement activities, outreach activities, bifurcation of authority, and staff resources available to state charity offices. Findings indicate that staffing levels are related to the scope of outreach and enforcement activities, as well as to bifurcation of authority.

Source: Urban Institute

Health and Human Services

This guide provides links to statistics and data in order to understand rural health needs and rural/urban disparities, communicate rural health needs, and inform decision-making related to service delivery and policy. Data sources and information focus on healthcare services, health status, demographics, and social determinants of health. For each source, it identifies the topics covered, ease of use, geographic level of data, and update frequency.

Source: Rural Health Information Hub, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

In 2013, 3.6 million young parents (those ages 18 to 24) lived with their children in the United States. These young adults face particular challenges in gaining the skills, education, and experiences necessary to obtain good, family sustaining-jobs. This brief offers a short review of the literature and then uses survey data to examine young parents who live with their children. Young parents constituted 5% of the approximately 66 million parents who reside with their children, and about 15% of all individuals ages 18 to 24 in 2013 were parents. The average age of young parents was 22. Most were on the older end of the age spectrum: 69% were ages 22 to 24. More than three-quarters of young parents living with their children (77%) were women. About three-quarters of young parents were white; 19% were black. Thirty-one percent of young parents were of Hispanic or Latino origin. Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin constituted a higher percentage of young parents than nonparents of the same age range (19%).

Source: Urban Institute

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Government Program Summaries (GPS) is a free resource for legislators and the public that provides descriptive information on over 200 state government programs. To provide fiscal data, GPS links to Transparency Florida, the Legislature's website that includes continually updated information on the state's operating budget and daily expenditures by state agencies.


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