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Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2016: A Criminal Justice Information Policy Report

Relationship Dynamics and Teen Dating Violence

Crime in California Cities Remains Stable Through Justice Reform Era (2010-2017)


Teacher Certification and Academic Growth Among English Learner Students in the Houston Independent School District

Developmental Education: An Introduction for Policymakers

The Academic and Behavioral Consequences of Discipline Policy Reform: Evidence from Philadelphia


Transportation Economic Trends 2017

Women’s and Men’s Earnings by Occupation From the 2015 American Community Survey

Telephone Appends for Address-Based Samples - An Introduction


Differences Between Rural and Urban Areas in Mortality Rates for the Leading Causes of Infant Death: United States, 2013–2015

Prevalence of Depression Among Adults Aged 20 and Over: United States, 2013–2016

The Long-Term Benefits of Preventing Childhood Lead Exposure

Failing Health of the United States

February 16, 2018


This report presents the results of a survey conducted of administrators of state criminal history record repositories. All 50 states, Guam, and Puerto Rico submitted survey responses. This report presents a snapshot as of December 31, 2016. Fifty states, Guam, and Puerto Rico reported the total number of persons in their criminal history files as 110,235,200. Florida had 5,524,000 offenders in its state criminal history database. Twenty-eight states, including Florida, have fully automated criminal history files. Nationally, an average of 68% of all arrests in state databases have final case dispositions reported. In Florida 58% of arrests in the database had a final case disposition record.

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice

A substantial percentage of dating teens report experiencing physical (18%), psychological (60%), or sexual (18%) violence in their relationships within the previous year. Violence and abuse in adolescent dating relationships can have a wide range of short- and long-term negative effects for both victims and perpetrators. Abuse does not always occur in the same way from one relationship to another. For example, one study that used data from 1,200 dating teens and young adults in the United States found that 70% of teen dating violence physical abuse perpetrators did not continue that behavior in a subsequent relationship.

Source: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice

This fact sheet compared FBI newly-updated crime statistics from the first six months of 2017 to the same time frame for the prior seven years. Findings indicate that California’s crime rates in large cities remained stable during California’s “justice reform era,” a period between 2010 and 2017 marked by large-scale criminal justice reform, including Public Safety Realignment in 2011 and Proposition 47 in 2014. In particular, California’s urban areas showed little change in crime rates between early 2010 and early 2017. Property crime across the state’s cities increased by less than 1% and violent crime increased by less than 3%. Overall, 34 cities reported increased total crime during this one-year period, and 39 cities showed decreases.

Source: Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice


This study examined the relationship between teacher certification – both type and route –and growth in academic achievement and English proficiency among English learner students in grades 4 and 5 in the Houston Independent School District. The routes are a certification route which adds a certification area to an existing classroom teaching certificate by completing an exam, an alternative route that that allows one to teach while completing the requirements, a post baccalaureate route in which a person completes a university program after already obtaining bachelor’s degree or higher, and the traditional route of obtaining a bachelor’s degree in education. For math, having a teacher with bilingual certification was associated with higher student growth in achievement in grade 4 but lower growth in achievement in grade 5 compared with having a teacher without bilingual or English as a second language certification. Having a teacher with bilingual certification through the alternative route was associated with the highest growth in achievement in grade 4. For reading, having a teacher with bilingual certification was associated with higher student growth in achievement in grade 4 compared with having a teacher without bilingual or English as a second language certification. Having a teacher with bilingual certification through the traditional route was associated with the highest growth in achievement in grade 4. For English proficiency, having a teacher with bilingual certification through the post-baccalaureate route was associated with the highest student growth in grade 4. Having a teacher with bilingual certification through the alternative route was associated with the highest growth in English proficiency in grade 5.

Source: Southwest Regional Educational Laboratory at SEDL

Developmental, or remedial, education courses are designed to develop the reading, writing, or math skills of students who are deemed, usually through standardized tests, underprepared for college-level courses. Offering these noncredit courses allows community colleges and less selective four-year colleges to open their doors to students who might otherwise be shut out of higher education. Millions of students (disproportionately students of color, adults, first-generation students and those from low-income backgrounds) enroll in developmental education at two- and four-year colleges. They include students who did not receive an adequate academic foundation in high school and those who have been out of school for years and need a math or English refresher. Although colleges have offered developmental education programs for decades, state policymakers have begun to pay more attention to the growing data that show the weaknesses of developmental education and its impact on college completion, workforce development and equity goals.

Source: Education Commission of the States

The School District of Philadelphia made dramatic changes to its code of conduct in 2012–2013, prohibiting the use of out-of-school suspensions for low-level conduct offenses, such as profanity and failure to follow classroom rules, and reduced the length of suspensions for more serious infractions. Changes in district policy resulted in an initial reduction in the number of low-level conduct suspensions, but the decrease did not persist. Notably, most schools did not comply with the policy change prohibiting such suspensions. Previously suspended students were less likely to be suspended after the policy change. Peers who did not receive a conduct suspension prior to the change experienced worse outcomes in schools that did not (or could not) comply with the policy change prohibiting conduct suspensions. Revising the district’s code of conduct was associated with an increase in racial disproportionality at the district level.

Source: Thomas B. Fordham Institute

Government Operations

This report highlights important trends in transportation and the economy, and explains related economic concepts and data sources for a general audience. Transportation-related final demand is a measure of the expenditures by households, private firms, and the government on final goods and services related to transportation. Total transportation-related final demand from 1999 to 2015 and trends for each of its components. Transportation-related final demand grew 3.5% from 1999 to 2007, peaking at $1,389.7 billion in 2007. It then fell 13.0% from 2007 to 2009 due to the recession, hitting an all-time low ($1,208.5 billion) in 2009. The sharp decline during the recession effectively removed over 10 years of growth in final demand. Transportation-related final demand has increased since the recession, surpassing the 2007 peak in 2014 and continuing to climb in 2015. The average annual growth in transportation-related final demand was 3.4% between 2010 and 2015, compared to 0.4% between 2000 and 2007.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation

This infographic shows median earnings by detailed occupation from the 2015 American Community Survey. The occupation table shows the male-to-female earnings ratio for full-time, year-round workers in the past 12 months. The highest median earning for occupations with 80% or more female workers was registered nurses. Whereas the lowest median earning were for the occupations of maid/housekeeping and childcare workers.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Surveys with samples selected from an a list of all know addresses, or an address frame, derived from U.S. Postal Service sources are often referred to as address-based sampling (ABS) surveys. For an ABS survey that is primarily conducted by mail, web, or face-to-face, sometimes it is helpful to have a telephone number corresponding to the sample addresses for setting appointments or conducting nonresponse follow-up prompts. The usefulness of a telephone contact mode in a mixed mode ABS design depends on both the percentage of addresses for which telephone numbers can be appended (append rate or match rate) and the accuracy of the telephone numbers associated with addresses. Before planning a telephone contact as part of a mixed-mode study, the designer should know the likely effectiveness of the approach. This paper focuses primarily on append rate information, with a discussion of accuracy rates. For a single ABS frame, telephone match rates vary by geography, address type, match vendor, and by landline vs. cell telephone number.

Source: RTI International

Health and Human Services

Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates were higher in rural counties than in large urban counties. Infant mortality rates for congenital malformations, sudden infant death syndrome, and unintentional injuries were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties; rural counties had the lowest infant mortality rates for low birthweight and maternal complications. The neonatal mortality rate for congenital malformations was highest in rural counties (105.12 per 100,000 live births), followed by small and medium urban counties (94.07) and large urban counties (77.03). Postneonatal mortality rates for sudden infant death syndrome, congenital malformations, and unintentional injuries were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics

During 2013-2016, 8.1% of American adults aged 20 and over had depression in a given 2-week period. Women (10.4%) were almost twice as likely as were men (5.5%) to have had depression. Depression was lower among non-Hispanic Asian adults, compared with Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, or non-Hispanic white adults. The prevalence of depression decreased as family income levels increased. About 80% of adults with depression reported at least some difficulty with work, home, and social activities because of their depression. From 2007–2008 to 2015–2016, the percentage of American adults with depression did not change significantly over time.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Although the U.S. has made progress preventing and reducing children’s exposure to lead, many children are still at risk. Using the Social Genome Model, a statistical model that links individuals’ circumstances and outcomes from birth to age 40, we find that policies that target children at risk of high blood lead levels and prevent their exposure to lead can improve children’s educational outcomes and reduce their chance of having a teen birth or criminal conviction.

Source: Urban Institute

White Americans are dying at higher rates from drugs, alcohol, and suicides. And the sharpest increases are happening in rural counties, often in regions with long-standing social and economic challenges. The reasons behind these increases are unclear and complex. The opioid epidemic plays a role but is just one part of a larger public health crisis. Life expectancy in the U.S. as a whole has fallen for the second year in a row, and the nation’s health relative to other countries has been declining for decades. Some combination of factors in American life must explain why the rise in mortality is greatest among white, middle-aged adults and certain rural communities. Possibilities include the collapse of industries and the local economies they supported, greater social isolation, economic hardship, and distress among white workers over losing the security their parents’ generation once enjoyed. Also, over the past 30 years, income inequality and other social divides have widened, middle-class incomes have stagnated, and poverty rates have exceeded those of most rich countries.

Source: Urban Institute

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