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IN THIS ISSUE:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Leveraging the Every Student Succeeds Act to Improve Educational Services in Juvenile Justice Facilities

Survey of Judicial Salaries


EDUCATION

2015–16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study: Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2015–16

High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 Second Follow-Up: A First Look at Fall 2009 Ninth-Graders in 2016

Impact of a Checklist on Principal-Teacher Feedback Conferences Following Classroom Observations


GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

Modernizing Unemployment Insurance for the Changing Nature of Work

Homeownership and the American Dream


HEALTH AND
HUMAN SERVICES

2017 Annual Report Suicide Prevention Coordinating Council

Births: Final Data for 2016

Association of Parental Supply of Alcohol With Adolescent Drinking, Alcohol-Related Harms, and Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms

Boosting Disaster Resilience Among Older Adults



February 2, 2018

Criminal_Justice
CRIMINAL JUSTICE

This policy brief provides state and local policymakers as well as education and juvenile justice leaders with information about how they can use requirements under the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) to improve education and workforce outcomes for youth in long-term juvenile justice facilities. The brief summarizes relevant ESSA provisions and outlines its key accountability requirements. Additionally, it highlights three priorities for states to focus on as they contemplate accountability for juvenile justice programs and schools; provides key questions to help state leaders consider their current policies and identify gaps and opportunities for improvement; and features states that are carrying out promising practices in each of the three priority areas, which can serve as examples for other states that are seeking to improve accountability for juvenile justice schools.

Source: Council of State Governments

This report presents judicial salaries by state. Nationally, the average annual salary for judges of general jurisdiction or trial courts was $155,163. The annual salary range for judges of general jurisdiction was $107,000 to $288,888. Florida’s general jurisdiction judges had an average annual salary of $160,688. After adjusting for the cost-of-living index, Florida ranked 12th in general jurisdiction judicial salaries among states. This report also presents state-level salary statistics for appellate and highest court judgeships.

Source: National Center for State Courts

Education
EDUCATION

Seventy-two percent of all undergraduates received some type of financial aid. Sixty-three percent received grants, 38% took out student loans, 5% received aid through work-study programs, 3% received federal veterans’ education benefits, and 4% had parents who took out federal Direct PLUS Loans. Among undergraduates who received any aid, the average total amount received was $12,300. The average total grant amount was $7,400, and student borrowers took out an average of $7,600 in student loans. Work-study participants earned an average of $2,400. Recipients of federal veterans’ education benefits received an average of $15,300. Parents of undergraduates borrowed an average of $14,000 in federal Direct PLUS Loans. Fifty-five percent of all undergraduates received federal student aid, 22% received state aid, and 25% received aid funded by the postsecondary institution they attended. The average amount of total federal student aid for undergraduates who received such aid was $8,600. The average amount of state aid for undergraduates who received it was $2,700, and the average amount of institutional aid for undergraduates who received it was $8,300.

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Ninety-two percent of all fall 2009 ninth-graders had earned a high school diploma by February 2016; of those who scored in the lowest fifth on the 2012 High School Longitudinal Study mathematics achievement test, however, 81% had earned a diploma, compared with 99% of those who scored in the highest fifth. In February 2016, some 7% of all fall 2009 ninth-graders were enrolled in postsecondary education and employed full time, 26% were enrolled in postsecondary education and employed part time, 5% were enrolled in postsecondary education and unemployed, and 13% were enrolled in postsecondary education but not in the labor force. Another 25% were not enrolled in postsecondary education but were employed full time, 11% were not enrolled in postsecondary education but were employed part time, 8% were not enrolled in postsecondary education and unemployed, and 65% were not enrolled in postsecondary education and not in the labor force.

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

This report presents findings from a statewide experiment in school year 2015-16 to test impacts of a checklist on the feedback conferences principals had with teachers after formal classroom observations. Of the 336 participating schools in New Mexico, researchers selected half at random in fall 2015 as the treatment group that would use the checklist for the academic year. The checklist had few clear impacts on the quality of feedback, professional development outcomes, instructional practice, and student achievement. The exceptions are that teachers who received the checklist reported that their principals were less likely to dominate the feedback conferences, and reported that they were more likely to follow their principals’ professional development recommendation. The overall usage of the feedback checklist was moderate, with about three-quarters of principals who were encouraged to use the checklist reporting that they saw it, and 58% reported using it in post-observation feedback sessions with at least a few teachers.

Source: Southwest Regional Educational Laboratory at SEDL

Government Operations
GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

Created in 1935, the Unemployment Insurance (UI) program collects payroll taxes from employers to insure workers against unexpected job loss. Eligible workers who become unemployed through no fault of their own can receive temporary income support while they search for reemployment. In 2016, the program paid $32 billion to 6.2 million out-of-work individuals. Unemployment Insurance was designed to insure traditional, full-time workers, and to help them return to traditional, full-time work. But today, growing numbers of Americans are working in non-traditional jobs. Growth in non-traditional work has contributed to a long-term decline in the percentage of unemployed workers eligible for UI. The authors present proposals to modernize the UI program to account for the growth in non-traditional work. The proposals are grouped according to three goals: 1) protecting independent contractors – who currently lack UI coverage – from job and income loss; 2) providing better coverage to non-traditional workers in W-2 arrangements; and 3) supporting entrepreneurship and voluntary transitions from unemployment into non-traditional work.

Source: Aspen Institute

In this article, the authors take a detailed look at U.S. homeownership from three different perspectives: 1) an international perspective, comparing U.S. homeownership rates with those of other nations; 2) a demographic perspective, examining the correlation between changes in the U.S. homeownership rate between 1985 and 2015 and factors like age, race/ethnicity, education, family status, and income; 3) and, a financial benefits perspective, which compares the internal rate of return to homeownership to other investments. The authors’ overall conclusion is that homeownership is a valuable institution. On average, it allows families to build wealth and serves as a measure of financial security. Homeownership rates in a variety of countries peak for households in their 60s, suggesting that owning a home helps reduce financial risk in retirement. Moreover, the mortgage interest deduction is not the main source of these gains; even if it were removed, homeowners would continue to benefit from a lack of taxation of imputed rent and capital gains, which are tax benefits available in most countries around the world.

Source: Urban Institute

Health and Human Services
HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

Suicide is a major public health issue and a leading cause of death nationally, with complex causes such as mental health and substance use disorders, painful losses, exposure to violence, and social isolation. Suicide is a tragic, but preventable event that has a devastating impact on families and communities. In 2016, 3,122 lives were lost to suicide in Florida. The total number of deaths due to suicide was 3,122, which is a slight decrease from 3,152 in 2015. Suicide was the eleventh leading cause of death in Florida. The suicide rate per 100,000 population was 15.4. This is a decrease from 2015 (15.9), and higher than the 2015 national rate.

Source: Department of Children and Families

A total of 3,945,875 births were registered in the United States in 2016, down 1% from 2015. Compared with rates in 2015, the general fertility rate declined to 62.0 per 1,000 women aged 15–44. The birth rate for females aged 15–19 fell 9% in 2016. Birth rates declined for women in their 20s but increased for women in their 30s and early 40s. The total fertility rate declined to 1,820.5 births per 1,000 women in 2016. The birth rate for unmarried women declined, while the rate for married women increased. More than three-quarters of women began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (77.1%) in 2016, while 7.2% of all women smoked during pregnancy. The cesarean delivery rate declined for the fourth year in a row. Medicaid was the source of payment for 42.6% of all 2016 births. The preterm birth rate rose for the second straight year, and the rate of low birthweight increased 1%. Twin and triplet and higher-order multiple birth rates declined, although the changes were not statistically significant.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

This article investigates associations between parental supply and supply from other (non-parental) sources, with subsequent drinking outcomes over a 6-year period of adolescence, adjusting for child, parent, family, and peer variables. Participants were recruited in 2010-2011 and followed up until 2016, during which time binge drinking and experience of alcohol-related harms increased. The authors found no evidence to support the view that parental supply protects from adverse drinking outcomes by providing alcohol to their child. Adolescents who were supplied alcohol only by parents had higher odds of subsequent binge consumption, alcohol-related harm, and symptoms of alcohol use disorder than did those reporting no supply. Parental supply of alcohol was not significantly associated with the odds of reporting symptoms of either alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with no supply from any source. Supply from other sources was associated with significant risks of all adverse outcomes, compared with no supply, with an even greater increased risk of adverse outcomes.

Source: The Lancet

Older adults are particularly vulnerable to natural disasters but also possess assets that can contribute to disaster preparedness. Public health department efforts to promote disaster preparedness do not always accommodate the needs of older adults. Aging-in-place efforts - activities to help older adults live well in their homes and communities rather than in institutional settings - focus on daily needs rather than on disaster resilience. Current aging-in-place efforts can be harnessed to strengthen disaster resilience among older adults. Collaborations between public health departments and organizations that promote aging in place could improve disaster resilience among older populations.

Source: RAND Corporation


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GOVERNMENT PROGRAM SUMMARIES (GPS)
Government Program Summaries (GPS) is a free resource for legislators and the public that provides descriptive information on over 200 state government programs. To provide fiscal data, GPS links to Transparency Florida, the Legislature's website that includes continually updated information on the state's operating budget and daily expenditures by state agencies.

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