PolicyNotes Banner

IN THIS ISSUE:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Preliminary Semiannual Uniform Crime Report, January - June 2017

Spotlight on Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

Interactions Between Youth and Law Enforcement


EDUCATION

High School Students' Views on Who Influences Their Thinking about Education and Careers

Fact Sheet: Pathway Schools Initiative


GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

Gross Domestic Product by State: Third Quarter 2017

Summary of the Quarterly Survey of Public Pensions for 2017: Quarter 3


HEALTH AND
HUMAN SERVICES

Main Reasons for Never Testing for HIV Among Women and Men Aged 15-44 in the United States, 2011-2015

Permanency Report: A National Update

Certified Electronic Health Record Technology Under the Quality Payment Program

Improving Disaster Resilience Among Older Adults: Insights from Public Health Departments and Aging-in-Place Efforts



January 26, 2018

Criminal_Justice
CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Preliminary statistics show declines in the number of both violent crimes and property crimes reported for the first half of 2017 when compared with the first half of 2016. Violent crime decreased 0.8% in the first six months of 2017 compared with the same time frame in 2016, though the number of murders and non-negligent manslaughters reported increased by 1.5%. Additionally, the number of rapes decreased 2.4%, robberies decreased 2.2%, and aggravated assaults were down 0.1%. Overall reported property crime offenses dropped 2.9% in the first half of 2017 compared with the first half of 2016. Burglaries decreased 6.1%, and larceny-thefts decreased 3%. One area of property crime that did rise was motor vehicle thefts, with a 4.1% increase.

Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation

This infographic focuses on trends and characteristics of girls at various stages in the juvenile justice system, including arrest, the juvenile court process, and residential placement. Simple assault and larceny-theft offenses accounted for nearly half of all female delinquency cases. Females accounted for more than half of all petitioned runaway cases in 2014 and less than one-third of all curfew cases. In 2015, status offenses, such as underage drinking, and technical violations were more common for females in placement than for males.

Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice

This literature review summarizes research relevant to interactions between police and youth. Topics in this review include the prevalence of police–youth interactions, factors that influence such interactions, the role of law enforcement in the juvenile justice system, and the outcome evidence of programs developed to help improve police–youth encounters. Police–youth contact consists of any face-to-face interaction between a youth and one or more law enforcement officers, including sworn officers serving in municipal police departments; sheriff’s departments; state police; and special jurisdiction agencies such as transit, park, and university police. Contact can be youth-initiated or police-initiated and may occur in programmatic settings, such as police-led programs (e.g., police athletic leagues), or through day-today interactions in community and school settings.

Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice

Education
EDUCATION

This report uses data from the 2012 follow-up of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 to examine who public high school students’ view as their main influence when considering education after high school and careers. Family members were most often reported as the main influence for students’ thinking about education after high school, followed by themselves; school staff (teacher or counselor) were less frequently reported as the main influence. Family members and themselves were most often reported as the main influence for students’ thinking about careers, with school staff less frequently reported as the main influence. Family members more often were reported as students’ main influence for thinking about postsecondary education than for their thinking about careers, while students reported relying on themselves more when thinking about careers than when thinking about postsecondary education.

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

This fact-sheet provides an overview of the Pathway Schools Initiative. The initiative worked with five local district and a team of evaluators to create a Pre-K to 3rd grade that begins with high-quality, full-day early learning experiences and then aligns and integrates curriculum, instruction, and assessment from PreK-3rd grade to ensure that early learning gains are sustained and strengthened. Additionally, teachers are given data about student literacy development and provided coaching and support to help them use that data and improve instructional practice. The goal of the initiative is to dramatically increase the percentage of successful 3rd grade readers and to encourage evidence-based policies and practices that ensure their continued achievement.

Source: McKnight Foundation

Government Operations
GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased in every state and the District of Columbia in the third quarter of 2017. Real GDP by state growth in the third quarter ranged from 5.7% in Delaware to 0.5% in South Dakota. Florida real GDP grew by 3%. For the nation, 17 of 21 industry groups increased in the third quarter. Finance and insurance, durable goods manufacturing, and information services were the leading contributors to national economic growth. Finance and insurance increased 14.7% nationally and contributed to growth in every state. This industry was the leading contributor to growth in seven of the ten fastest growing states, including Delaware–the fastest growing state.

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis

For the 100 largest public-employee pension systems in the country, assets (cash and investments) totaled $3,691.1 billion in the third quarter of 2017, increasing by 2.8% from the 2017 second-quarter level of $3,590.7 billion. Compared to the same quarter in 2016, assets for these major public-pension systems increased 9.0% from $3,386.4 billion. This continues the growth trend that began in the third quarter of 2015. The summary highlights the major asset categories (equities, debt instruments, and cash equivalents) and does not reflect all of the categories published for the Quarterly Survey of Public Pensions.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Health and Human Services
HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

This report presents the percentage of men and women aged 15-44 in the United States who have never been tested for HIV outside of blood or blood product donation based on 2011-2015 data from the National Survey of Family Growth. Additionally, this report describes the main reasons reported for having never been tested for HIV. Overall, 38.8% of women and 53.8% of men aged 15-44 had never been tested for HIV outside of donating blood or blood products. Non-Hispanic black women and men had the lowest percentages of those who had never been tested for HIV (20.8% and 32.2%, respectively) compared with the other Hispanic-origin and race groups shown. Never testing for HIV also varied by marital or cohabiting status, education, and sexual orientation. A lower percentage of women and men aged 15-44 who reported any HIV risk-related sexual or drug behaviors in the past year had never been tested for HIV (26.4% and 33.7%) compared with those who did not report these behaviors (39.1% and 55.8%). The most common reason reported by women and men for having never been tested for HIV was that they were “unlikely to have been exposed to HIV” (72.0% and 71.1%), followed by they had “never been offered an HIV test” (21.0% and 21.1%).

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

This report presents state-by-state data on key foster care and permanency measures, as well as examples of strategies being implemented through the Reimagining Dependency Courts project to reduce court delay in achieving permanency. Some of the measures found in the report include the percentage of children in foster care who have been in care for more than 24 months and the percentage of foster children in the state who are waiting for adoption. The report also highlights Florida’s permanency dockets in Broward and Palm Beach Counties for children in out-of-home placement for more than 24 months. In 2015, there were 22,220 youth in care in Florida with 5,504 (25%) waiting for adoption.

Source: National Center for State Courts

The 2016 Quality Payment Program (QPP) is a Medicare reimbursement reform designed to incentivize value-based care over volume-based care. A core tenet of the QPP is integrated utilization of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT). Adopting and implementing CEHRT is a resource-intensive process, requiring both financial capital and human capital (in the form of knowledge and time). Adoption can be especially challenging for small or rural practices that may not have access to such capital. This issue brief discusses the role of CEHRT in the Quality Payment Program and offers policy recommendations to help small and rural practices improve their health information technology capabilities with regards to participation in value-based care. The QPP requires practices to have health information technology capabilities, both as a requirement for a complete performance score and to facilitate reporting. Practices that are unable to implement CEHRT will have difficulty complying with the new reimbursement system, and will likely incur financial losses.

Source: RTI International

This report uses interview data collected from public health departments and aging-in-place efforts - specifically, from coordinators of age-friendly communities and village executive directors - to explore how current aging-in-place efforts can be used to strengthen the disaster resilience of older adults and which existing programs or new collaborations among public health departments and these organizations show promise for improving disaster resilience for older populations. Interviews with stakeholders revealed that most age-friendly communities and senior villages did not place a high priority on promoting disaster preparedness. While most public health departments conducted or took the lead on disaster preparedness and resilience activities, they were not necessarily tailored to older adults. Aligning and extending public health departments' current preparedness activities to include aging-in-place efforts and greater tailoring of existing preparedness activities to the needs of older adults could significantly improve their disaster preparedness and resilience. For jurisdictions that do not have an existing aging-in-place effort, public health departments can help initiate those efforts and work to incorporate preparedness activities at the outset of newly developing aging-in-place efforts.

Source: RAND Corporation


N O T E :
An online subscription may be required to view some items.




GOVERNMENT PROGRAM SUMMARIES (GPS)
Government Program Summaries (GPS) is a free resource for legislators and the public that provides descriptive information on over 200 state government programs. To provide fiscal data, GPS links to Transparency Florida, the Legislature's website that includes continually updated information on the state's operating budget and daily expenditures by state agencies.

POLICYNOTES

A publication of the Florida Legislature's Office of Program Policy Analysis And Government Accountability

PolicyNotes, published every Friday, features reports, articles, and websites with timely information of interest to policymakers and researchers. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed by third parties as reported in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect OPPAGA's views.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of PolicyNotes provided that this section is preserved on all copies.